On the Bennelongia barangaroo lineage (Crustacea, Ostracoda) in Western Australia, with the description of seven new species

Koen Martens, Stuart Halse, Isa Schön


The ostracod genus Bennelongia De Deckker & McKenzie, 1981 is endemic to Australia and New Zealand. Extensive sampling in Western Australia (WA) revealed a high specific and largely undescribed diversity. Here, we describe seven new species belonging to the B. barangaroo lineage: B. timmsi sp. nov., B. gnamma sp. nov., B. hirsuta sp. nov., B. ivanae sp. nov., B. mcraeae sp. nov., B. scanloni sp. nov. and B. calei sp. nov., and confirm the presence of an additional species, B. dedeckkeri, in WA. For five of these eight species, we could construct molecular phylogenies and parsimonious networks based on COI sequences. We also tested for cryptic diversity and specific status of clusters with a statistical method based on the evolutionary genetic species concept, namely Birky’s 4 theta rule. The analyses support the existence of these five species and a further three cryptic species in the WA B. barangaroo lineage. The molecular evidence was particularly relevant because most species described herein have very similar morphologies and can be distinguished from each other only by the shape, size and position of the antero-ventral lapel on the right valve, and, in sexual populations, by the small differences in shape of the hemipenes and the prehensile palps in males. Four species of the WA B. barangaroo lineage occur in small temporary rock pools (gnammas) on rocky outcrops. The other four species are mainly found in soft bottomed seasonal water bodies. One of the latter species, B. scanloni sp. nov., occurs in both claypans and deeper rock pools (pit gnammas). All species, except for B. dedeckkeri, originally described from Queensland, have quite clearly delimited distributions in WA. With the seven new species described here, the genus Bennelongia now comprises 25 nominal species but several more await formal description.


Taxonomy; evolution; cryptic species; biodiversity; Western Australia

Full Text:


DOI: https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2013.66


Altschul S.F., Gish W., Miller W., Myers E.W. & Lipman D.J. 1990. Basic local alignment search tool. Journal of Molecular Biology 215: 403-410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-2836(05)80360-2

Birky Jr. C.W. 2011. Species detection and identification in sexual organisms using population genetic theory and DNA sequences. PLoS ONE 8: e52544. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052544

Birky Jr. C.W. & Barraclough T.G. 2009. Asexual speciation. In: Schön I., Martens K. & van Dijk P. (eds) Lost Sex. Springer Scientific Publishers, Dordrecht: 201-216.

Birky Jr. C.W., Adams J., Gemmel M. & Perry J. 2010. Using Population Genetic Theory and DNA sequences for species detection and identification in asexual organisms. PLoS ONE 5: e10609. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010609

Birky Jr. C.W., Ricci C., Melone G. & Fontaneto D. 2011. Integrating DNA and morphological taxonomy to describe diversity in poorly studied microscopic animals: new species of the genus Abrochtha Bryce, 1910 (Rotifera: Bdelloidea: Philodinavidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 161: 723-734. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2010.00674.x

Bode S.N.S., Lamatsch D.K., Martins M.J.F., Schmit O., Vandekerkhove J., Mezquita F., Namiotko T., Rossetti G., Schön I., Butlin R.K. & Martens K. 2010. Exceptional cryptic diversity and multiple origins of parthenogenesis in a freshwater ostracod. Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution 54: 542-552. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2009.08.022

Broodbakker N.W. & Danielopol D.L. 1982. The chaetotaxy of Cypridacea (Crustacea, Ostracoda) limbs: proposals for a descriptive model. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 52: 103-120.

Cale D.J., Halse S.A. & Walker C.D. 2004. Wetland monitoring in the wheatbelt of south-west Western Australia: site descriptions, waterbird, aquatic invertebrate and groundwater data. Conservation Science Western Australia 5: 20-135.

Clement M., Posada D. & Crandall K. 2000. TCS: a computer program to estimate gene genealogies. Molecular Ecology 9: 1657-1660. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-294x.2000.01020.x

Darriba D., Taboada G.L., Doallo R. & Posada D. 2012. jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nature Methods 9: 772. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.2109

De Deckker P. 1981a. Taxonomy and ecology notes of some ostracods from Australian inland waters. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 105 (3): 91-138.

De Deckker P. 1981b. Ostracoda from Australian inland waters – notes on taxonomy and ecology. Transactions of the Royal Society of Victoria 93 (1): 43-85.

De Deckker P. 1982. On Bennelongia tunta De Deckker sp. nov. A Stereo-Atlas of Ostracod Shells 9 (21): 117-124.

De Deckker P. & McKenzie K.G. 1981. Bennelongia, a new cyprididid ostracod genus from Australasia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 105 (2): 53-58.

De Deckker P. & Martens K. 2013. Extraordinary morphological changes in valve morphology during the ontogeny of several species of the Australian ostracod genus Bennelongia (Crustacea, Ostracoda). European Journal of Taxonomy 36: 1-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2013.36

Folmer O., Black M., Hoeh W., Lutz R. & Vrijenhoek R. 1994. DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology 3: 294-299.

Fontaneto D., Herniou E.A., Boschetti C., Caprioli M., Melone G., Ricci C. & Barraclough T.G. 2007. Independently evolving species in asexual bdelloid rotifers. PLoS ONE 5: e87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050087

Fontaneto D., Kaya M., Herniou E.A. & Barraclough T.G. 2009. Extreme levels of hidden diversity in microscopic animals (Rotifera) revealed by DNA taxonomy. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53: 182-189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2009.04.011

Guindon S. & Gascuel O. 2003. PhyML – a simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Systematic Biology 52: 696-704. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10635150390235520

Hall T. 2007. BioEdit: Biological sequence alignment editor for Win95/98/NT/2K/XP [Online]. Website last modified on June 27, 2007 (accessed on September 13, 2011). Available at http://www.mbio.ncsu.edu/BioEdit/bioedit.html

Halse S.A. 2002. Diversity of Ostracoda (Crustacea) in inland waters of Western Australia. Verhand-lungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für theoretische und angewandte Limnologie 28: 914-918.

Halse S.A., Shiel R.J. & Williams W.D. 1998. Aquatic invertebrates of Lake Gregory, north-western Australia, in relation to salinity and ionic composition. Hydrobiologia 381: 15-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1003263105122

Horne D.J. & Martens K. 1999. Geographical parthenogenesis in European non-marine ostracods: post-glacial invasion or Holocene stability? Hydrobiologia 391: 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1003508210166

Horne D.J., Cohen A. & Martens K. 2002. Taxonomy, Morphology and Biology of Quaternary and Living Ostracoda. In: Holmes J.A. & Chivas A.R. (eds) The Ostracoda: Application in Quaternary Research. Geophysical Monograph 131. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC: 5-36.

Larkin M.A., Blackshields G., Brown N.P., Chenna R., McGettigan P.A., McWilliam H., Valentin F., Wallace I.M., Wilm A., Lopez R., Thompson J.D., Gibson T.J. & Higgins D.G. 2007. Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0. Bioinformatics 23: 2947-2948. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btm404

Martens K. 1987. Homology and functional morphology of the sexual dimorphism in the antenna of Sclerocypris Sars, 1924 (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Megalocypridinae). Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 57: 183-190.

Martens K. 2000. Factors affecting the divergence of mate recognition systems in the Limnocytherinae (Crustacea, Ostracoda ). In: Horne D.J. & Martens K. (eds) Proceedings of the XIII International Symposium on Ostracoda. Hydrobiologia 419: 83-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1003954513004

Martens K., Halse S. & Schön I. 2012. Nine new species of Bennelongia De Deckker & McKenzie, 1981 (Crustacea, Ostracoda) from Western Australia, with the description of a new subfamily. European Journal of Taxonomy 8: 1-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2012.8

Pinder A.M., Halse S.A., Shiel R.J. & McRae J.M. 2000. Granite outcrop pools in south-western Australia: foci of diversification and refugia for aquatic invertebrates. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 83: 149-161.

Ronquist F., Teslenko M., van der Mark P., Ayres D., Darling A., Höhna S., Larget B., Liu L., Suchard M.A. & Huelsenbeck J.P. 2012. MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Systematic Biology 61: 539-542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/sys029

Schön I., Pinto R.L., Halse S.A., Smith A.J., Martens K. & Birky Jr. C.W. 2012. Cryptic species in putative ancient asexual darwinulids (Crustacea, Ostracoda). PLOS One 7: e39844. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039844

Shearn R., Koenders A., Halse S., Schön I. & Martens K. 2012. A review of Bennelongia De Deckker & Mckenzie, 1981 (Crustacea, Ostracoda) species from eastern Australia, with the description of three new species. European Journal of Taxonomy 25: 1-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2012.25

Tamura K., Peterson D., Peterson N., Stecher G., Nei M. & Kumar S. 2011. MEGA5: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis using Likelihood, Distance, and Parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution 28: 2731-2739. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msr121

Timms B.V. 2002. The fairy shrimp Branchinella Sayce (Crustacea: Anostraca: Thamnocephalidae) in Western Australia, including a description of four new species. Hydrobiologia 486: 71-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021330230369

Tsukagoshi A. 1988. Reproductive character displacement in the ostracod genus Cythere. Journal of Crustacean Biology 8: 563-575. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1548693

Van Doninck K., Schön I., Maes F., De Bruyn L. & Martens K. 2003. Ecological strategies in the ancient asexual animal group Darwinulidae (Crustacea, Ostracoda). Freshwater Biology 48: 1285-1294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2427.2003.01078.x


  • There are currently no refbacks.

License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/