Revision of Desmodorinae and Spiriniinae (Nematoda: Desmodoridae) with redescription of eight known species

Maickel Armenteros, Alexei Ruiz-Abierno, Wilfrida Decraemer

Abstract


The taxonomy of the family Desmodoridae (Nematoda: Desmodorida) is partially revised based on morphology. The diagnoses of the Desmodoridae and the subfamilies Desmodorinae and Spiriniinae are emended to accommodate re-analyzed morphological features. Eight known species are redescribed and the implication of the new findings for the taxonomy of the group is discussed. Amphispira and Metadesmodora are confirmed as genera inquirendae. Alaimonema and Sigmophoranema, and their corresponding type species, are proposed as inquirendae due to poor descriptions of the type material. The other three species of Sigmophoranema are transferred to the genus Onyx because they bear the diagnostic features of this group: spear-like dorsal tooth and s-shape precloacal supplements. Echinodesmodora, Paradesmodora and Stygodesmodora are transferred to the Spiriniinae based on the absence of a head capsule and on the amphidial fovea being surrounded by cuticle striation. Paradesmodora toreutes is transferred to the genus Acanthopharyngoides as A. toreutes comb. nov. The genus Onepunema does not fit in the family Desmodoridae because of diorchic males; thus, it is regarded as taxon incertae sedis. Lists of valid genera for the two subfamilies are provided. A dichotomic key for the identification of the 14 genera within the Spiriinae is provided.

Full Text:

PDF PDF/A


DOI: https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2014.96

References


Allgén C. 1933. Freilebende Nematoden aus dem Trondhjemsfjord. Capita Zoologica 4 (2):1–162.

Allgén C.A. 1947. West American marine nematodes (Papers from Dr. Th. Mortensen´s Pacific Expedition 1914-1916, 75). Videnskabelige Meddelelser Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening 110: 65–219.

Armenteros M., Rojas-Corzo A., Ruiz-Abierno A., Derycke S., Backeljau T., Decraemer W. In press. Systematics and DNA barcoding of free-living marine nematodes with emphasis on tropical desmodorids using nuclear SSU rDNA and mitochondrial COI sequences. Nematology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/15685411-00002824

Armenteros M., Ruiz-Abierno A. & Decraemer W. 2014. Taxonomy of Stilbonematinae (Nematoda: Desmodoridae): description of two new and three known species and phylogenetic relationships within the family. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 171 (1): 1–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12126

Armenteros M., Ruiz-Abierno A., Sosa Y. & Pérez-García J.A. 2012. Habitat heterogeneity effects on macro- and meiofauna (especially nematodes) in Punta Francés coral reef (SW Cuban Archipelago). Revista de Investigaciones Marinas 32 (1): 50-61.

Armenteros M., Vincx M. & Decraemer W. 2010. Guitartia tridentata n. gen., n. sp. (Monhysterida: Xyalidae) and Macrodontium gaspari n. gen., n. sp. (Chromadorida: Microlaimidae), free-living marine nematodes from the Caribbean Sea. Nematology 12 (3): 417–427. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/138855409X12559479585007

Bastian H.C. 1865. Monograph of the Anguillulidae, or Free Nematoids, Marine, Land, and Freshwater; with Descriptions of 100 New Species. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 25 (2): 73–184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1865.tb00179.x

Blome D. & Riemann F. 1994. Sandy Beach Meiofauna of Eastern Australia (Southern Queensland and New South Wales). III.* Revision of the Nematode Genus Onyx Cobb, 1891, with a Description of Three New Species (Nematoda: Desmodoridae). Invertebrate Taxon 8 (6): 1483–1492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/IT9941483

Boucher G. 1975. Nématodes des sables fins infralittoraux de la Pierre Noire (Manche occidentale). I. Desmodoridae. Bulletin du Muséum national d´Histoire naturelle, 3e série Zoologie 285: 101–128.

Bütschli D. 1874. Zur Kenntnis der freilebenden Nematoden, insbesondere der des Kieler Hafens. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 9 (3).237–292

Cobb N.A. 1920. IX. One hundred new nemas. In: Cobb N.A. Contributions to a Science of Nematology: 217–234. Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore. http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.20608

Cobb N.A. 1933. New Nemic Genera and Species, with Taxonomic Notes. Journal of Parasitology 20 (2): 81–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3272166

Coles J.W. 1987. Observations on the marine nematode genus Spirinia Gerlach, 1963 (Desmodoridae: Spiriniinae) with descriptions of two new species. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Zoology 53 (2): 79–101.

Decraemer W. & Smol N. 2006. Chapter 17. Orders Chromadorida, Desmodorida and Desmoscolecida. In: Abebe E., Traunspurger W. & Andrássy I. (eds) Freshwater nematodes: Ecology and taxonomy: 497–573. CABI Publishing, Wallingford. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/9780851990095.0497

Dinh Tu N., Smol N., Vanreusel A. & Vu Thanh N. 2011. Six new species of the genus Onyx Cobb, 1891 (Nematoda: Desmodoridae) from Coastal Areas in Vietnam. Russian Journal of Nematology 19 (1): 1–20.

Filipjev I.N. 1922. Sur les Nématodes libres de la mer d’Azov. Trudy Stavropol´skago Sel’skokhozyaistvennago Instituta 1 (7): 185–208.

Fonseca Cavalcanti M., Silva M.C. & Fonsêca-Genevois V. 2009. Spirodesma magdae nov. gen. nov. sp. (Nematoda: Desmodoridae) from the Brazilian deep sea (Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Zootaxa 2096: 109–118.

Furstenberg J.P. & Vincx M. 1988. Three new Chromadoropsis species (Nematoda, Desmodoridae) from Southern Africa and the North Sea. South African Journal of Zoology 23: 215–223.

Gerlach S.A. 1950. Über einige Nematoden aus der Familie der Desmodoriden. Zoologischer Anzeiger 145: 178–198.

Gerlach S.A. 1952. Nematodes aus dem Küstengrundwasser. Abhandlungen der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse 6: 315–372.

Gerlach S.A. 1956. Neue nematoden aus dem kustengrundwasser des Golfes de Gascogne (Biskaya). Vie et Milieu 6: 426–434.

Gerlach S.A. 1963. Freilebende Meeresnematoden von den Malediven II. Kieler Meeresforschungen Sonderheft 19: 67–113.

Gerlach S.A. 1964. Freilebende Nematoden aus dem Roten Meer. Kieler Meereforschungen Sonderheft 20 : 18–34.

Gerlach S.A. & Riemann F. 1973. The Bremerhaven checklist of aquatic nematodes. A catalogue of Nematoda Adenophorea excluding the Dorylaimida. Kommissionsverlag Franz Leuwer, Bremen.

Hausdorf B. 2011. Progress toward a general species concept. Evolution 65 (4): 923-931. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01231.x

Hodda M. 2011. Phylum Nematoda Cobb 1932. In: Zhang Z.-Q. (ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 63–95.

Hope D. & Murphy D.G. 1972. A Taxonomic Hierarchy and Checklist of the Genera and Higher Taxa of Marine Nematodes. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 137, Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, Washington. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.5479/si.00810282.137

Inglis W.G. 1963. New marine nematodes from off the coast of South Africa. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology 10 (9): 529–552.

Inglis W.G. 1968. Interstitial nematodes from St. Vincent´s Bay, New Caledonia. In: Expédition Française sur les récifs coralliens de la Nouvelle Calédonie. Volume 2: 29–74. Éditions de la Fondation Singer-Polignac, Paris.

Jensen P. 1985. The nematode fauna in the sulphide-rich brine seep and adjacent bottoms of the East Flower Garden, NW Gulf of Mexico. I. Chromadorida. Zoologica Scripta 14 (4): 247–263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-6409.1985.tb00195.x

Kampfer S., Sturmbauer C. & Ott J. 1998. Phylogenetic Analysis of rDNA Sequences from Adenophorean Nematodes and Implications for the Adenophorea-Secernentea Controversy. Invertebrate Biology 117 (1): 26–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3226849

Leduc D. & Verschelde D. 2013. One new genus and two new free-living nematode species (Desmodorida, Desmodoridae) from the continental margin of New Zealand, Southwest Pacific Ocean. Zootaxa 3609 (3): 274–290. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3609.3.2

Lorenzen S. 1994. The phylogenetic Systematics of Freeliving Nematodes. The Ray Society, London.

Maria T.F., Morgado-Esteves A., Smol N., Vanreusel A. & Decraemer W. 2009. Chromaspirina guanabarensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Desmodoridae) and a new illustrated dichotomous key to Chromaspirina species. Zootaxa 2092: 21–36.

Maria T.F., Smol N. & Esteves A.M. 2014. Two new species of Metachromadora (Nematoda: Desmodoridae) from Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and a revised dichotomous key to the genus. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 94 (1): 105–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315413001161

Micoletzky H. 1922. Die freilebenden Erd-Nematoden mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Steiermark und der Bukowina, zugleich mit einer Revision sämtlicher, nicht mariner, freilebender Nematoden in Form von Genus-Beschreibungen und Bestimmungsschlusseln. Archiv für Naturgeschichte Berlin Abteilung A 87 (8): 1–649.

Muthumbi A.W. & Vincx M. 1999. Microlaimidae (Microlaimoidea: Nematoda) from the Indian Ocean: description of nine new and known species. Hydrobiologia 397: 39–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1003686212934

Ndaro S.G.M. & Ólafsson E. 1999. Soft-bottom fauna with emphasis on nematode assemblage structure in a tropical intertidal lagoon in Zanzibar, eastern Africa: I. Spatial variability. Hydrobiologia 405: 133–148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1003874122971

Ott J.A. 1972. Twelve New Species of Nematodes from an Intertidal Sandflat in North Carolina. Internationale Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie 57 (3): 463–496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iroh.19720570307

Ott J.A. 1996. Sulphide ectosymbioses in shallow marine habitats. In: Uiblein F., Ott J.A. & Stachowitsch M. (eds) Deep-sea and extreme shallow-waters habitats: affinities and adaptations: 369–382. Biosystematics and Ecology Series 11, Austrian Academy of Science Press, Vienna.

Ott J.A., Bauer-Nebelsick M. & Novotny V. 1995. The genus Laxus Cobb, 1894 (Stilbonematinae: Nematoda): description of two new species with ectosymbiotic chemoautotrophic bacteria. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 108 (3): 508–527.

Pastor De Ward C. 1988. Nematodos marinos de la ria Deseado (Desmodoroidea: Desmodoridae, Draconematidae), Santa Cruz, Argentina 7. Physis Secciones A, B y C 46: 61–72.

Platt H.M. & Warwick R.M. 1988. Free-living marine nematodes. Part II. British Chromadorids. Synopses of British Fauna 38, The Linnean Society of London and The Estuarine and Brackish-water Sciences Association, Leiden.

Riemann F. & Schrage M. 1977. Zwei neue Nematoda Desmodorida aus der Iberischen Tiefsee. Meteor Forschungsergebnisse. Reihe D: Biologie 25: 49–53

Schulz E. 1939. Beiträge zur Morphologie und Systematik freilebender mariner Nematoden, I. Kieler Meeresforschungen Sonderheft 3: 114–121.

Schuurmans Stekhoven J.H. 1950. The freeliving marine nemas of the Mediterranean. I. The Bay of Villefranche. Mémoires de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, deuxième série 37, Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Brussels.

Steiner G. 1921. Beiträge zur Kenntis mariner Nematoden. Zoologische Jahrbücher 44:1–68.

Tchesunov A.V. 2013. Marine free-living nematodes of the subfamily Stilbonematinae (Nematoda, Desmodoridae): Taxonomic review with descriptions of a few species from the Nha Trang Bay, Central Vietnam. Meiofauna Marina 20: 71–94.

Tchesunov A.V. 2014. 7.13 Order Desmodorida de Coninck, 1965. In: Schmidt-Rhaesa A (ed.) Handbook of Zoology Online: 399-434. De Gruyter, Berlin. Available from http://www.degruyter.com/view/db/zoology [accessed 13 May 2014]

Tietjen J.H. 1991. Ecology of free-living nematodes from the continental shelf of the Central Great Barrier Reef Province. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 32 (5): 421–438. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-7714(91)90032-7

van Megen H., van den Elsen S., Holterman M., Karssen G., Mooyman P., Bongers T., Holovachov O., Bakker J. & Helder J. 2009. A phylogenetic tree of nematodes based on about 1200 full-length small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Nematology 11 (6): 927–950. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156854109X456862

Venekey V., Fonseca-Genevois V.G. & Santos P.J.P. 2010. Biodiversity of free-living marine nematodes on the coast of Brazil: a review. Zootaxa 2568: 39–66.

Verschelde D., Gourbault N.E. & Vincx M. 1998. Revision of Desmodora with description of new Desmodorids (Nematoda) from hydrothermal vents of the Pacific. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 78 (1): 75–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315400039977

Verschelde D., Nicholas W. & Vincx M. 2006. A review of the genera Croconema Cobb, 1920 and Pseudochromadora Daday, 1899 (Nematoda, Desmodoroidea): new species from the Coasts of Kenya and Australia. Hydrobiologia 571 (1): 17–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-006-0194-0

Verschelde D. & Vincx M. 1995. Psammonema gen.n. and Pseudochromadora Daday, 1889 (Nematoda, Desmodoridae) from sandy sediments of Gazi, Kenya. Bulletin de l´Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 65: 11–39.

Verschelde D. & Vincx M. 1996. Four new species of the family Desmodoridae (Nematoda, Desmodoroidea) from Kenya. Zoologica Scripta 25 (1): 1–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-6409.1996.tb00148.x

Vincx M. 1996. Meiofauna in marine and freshwater sediments. In: Hall G.S. (ed.) Methods for the examination of organismal diversity in soils and sediments: 187–195. CAB International, Wallingford.

Vincx M. & Gourbault N.E. 1989. Desmodoridae from the Bay of Morlaix (Brittany) and the Southern Bight of the North Sea. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 30 (1): 103–114.

Warwick R.M. 1969.Two new species of Pseudonchus Cobb (Nematoda, Choanolaimidae) from the British Coast. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 10 (4): 375–382.

Wheeler Q. 2004. Taxonomic triage and the poverty of phylogeny. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 359 (1444): 571–583. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2003.145232

Wieser W. 1954. Free-living marine nematodes II. Chromadoroidea. Acta Universitatis Lundensis (N.F. 2) 50, C.W.K. Gleerup, Lund.

Wieser W. & Hopper B. 1967. Marine Nematodes of the east coast of North America. I. Florida. Bulletin of Museum of Comparative Zoology 135: 239–344.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/