The Philippine hair wax spiders and their relatives: revision of the Pholcus bicornutus species group (Araneae, Pholcidae)

Bernhard A. Huber, Olga M. Nuñeza, Charles Leh Moi Ung

Abstract


We revise the Southeast Asian Pholcus bicornutus group in which males are characterized by a unique pair of horns on their ocular area, each of which carries at its tip a brush of hairs. In two species, the two hair brushes are ‘glued’ or ‘waxed’ together by an unidentified substance into a very consistently curved and pointed single median tip. In the other five species known, the hairs are unglued. We present a first revision of ocular modifications in Pholcidae and identify twenty supposedly independent origins. Most cases are in Pholcinae, and all but one case are limited to the male, suggesting sexual selection as the main driving force in the evolution of ocular modifications in Pholcidae. Previously, the Pholcus bicornutus group consisted of four species limited to the Philippines. We describe four new species, including three species from the Philippines (P. olangapo Huber, sp. nov.; P. kawit Huber, sp. nov.; P. baguio Huber, sp. nov.) and the first representative from outside the Philippines (P. mulu Huber, sp. nov. from Sarawak, NE Borneo) and provide new records and SEM data for three previously described species.

Keywords


Pholcus; taxonomy; ocular area; sexual dimorphism; ultrastructure

Full Text:

PDF PDF/A


DOI: https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2016.225

References


Barrion A.T. & Litsinger J.A. 1995. Riceland Spiders of South and Southeast Asia. CAB International, Wallingford, U.K.

Brown B.V. 1993. A further chemical alternative to critical-point-drying for preparing small (or large) flies. Fly Times 11: 10.

Dimitrov D., Astrin J.J. & Huber B.A. 2013. Pholcid spider molecular systematics revisited, with new insights into the biogeography and the evolution of the group. Cladistics 29: 132–146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00419.x

Huber B.A. 1997. Evidence for gustatorial courtship in a haplogyne spider (Hedypsilus culicinus: Pholcidae: Araneae). Netherlands Journal of Zoology 47 (1): 95–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156854297X00265

Huber B.A. 2001. The pholcids of Australia (Araneae; Pholcidae): taxonomy, biogeography, and relationships. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 260: 1–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1206/0003-0090(2001)260%3C0001:TPOAAP%3E2.0.CO;2

Huber B.A. 2009. Life on leaves: leaf-dwelling pholcids of Guinea, with emphasis on Crossopriza cylindrogaster Simon, a spider with inverted resting position, pseudo-eyes, lampshade web, and tetrahedral egg-sac (Araneae: Pholcidae). Journal of Natural History 43: 2491–2523. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222930903207876

Huber B.A. 2011a. Revision and cladistic analysis of Pholcus and closely related taxa (Araneae, Pholcidae). Bonner zoologische Monographien 58: 1–509.

Huber B.A. 2011b. Phylogeny and classification of Pholcidae (Araneae): an update. Journal of Arachnology 39: 211–222.

Huber B.A. 2012. Revision and cladistic analysis of the Afrotropical endemic genus Smeringopus Simon, 1890 (Araneae: Pholcidae). Zootaxa 3461: 1–138.

Huber B.A. 2013. Revision and cladistic analysis of the Guineo-Congolian spider genus Smeringopina Kraus (Araneae, Pholcidae). Zootaxa 3713: 1–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3713.1.1

Huber B.A. 2016. A new genus of ground and litter-dwelling pholcine spiders from Sarawak (Araneae, Pholcidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 186: 1–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2016.186

Huber B.A. & Leh Moi Ung C. 2016. The Panjange nigrifrons group in Borneo (Araneae: Pholcidae): high diversity in Sarawak, apparent absence in Sabah. European Journal of Taxonomy 184: 1–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2016.184

Huber B.A. & Nuñeza O.M. 2015. Evolution of genital asymmetry, exaggerated eye stalks, and extreme palpal elongation in Panjange spiders (Araneae: Pholcidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 169: 1–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2015.169

Huber B.A. & Warui C.M. 2012. East African pholcid spiders: an overview, with descriptions of eight new species (Araneae, Pholcidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 29: 1–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2012.29

Huber B.A., Fischer N. & Astrin J.J. 2010. High level of endemism in Haiti’s last remaining forests: a revision of Modisimus (Araneae: Pholcidae) on Hispaniola, using morphology and molecules. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 158: 244–299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00559.x

Huber B.A., Nuñeza O.M. & Leh Moi Ung C. 2015. Revision, phylogeny, and microhabitat shifts in the Southeast Asian spider genus Aetana (Araneae, Pholcidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 162: 1–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2015.162

Huber B.A., Petcharad B., Leh Moi Ung C., Koh J.K.H. & Ghazali A.R.M. 2016. The Southeast Asian Pholcus halabala species group (Araneae, Pholcidae): new data from field observations and ultrastructure. European Journal of Taxonomy 190: 1–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2016.190

Simon E. 1892. Étude sur les arthropodes cavernicoles de l’île de Luzon. Annales de la Société entomologique de France 61: 35–52.

Simon E. 1893. Histoire Naturelle des Araignées. 2nd edition, 1 (2): 256–488. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.51973

Walckenaer C.A. 1805. Tableau des aranéides ou caractères essentiels des tribus, genres, familles et races que renferme le genre Aranea de Linné, avec la désignation des espèces comprises dans chacune de ces divisions. E. Dentu, Paris.

Yao Z., Li S. & Jäger P. 2014. Four new species of pholcine spiders (Araneae: Pholcidae) from Southeast Asia. Zootaxa 3793: 331–349. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3793.3.2


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

 

 

royal_museum_for_central_africablank_spaceroyal_belgian_institute_of_natural_sciencesnatural_history_museum_of_londonnatural_history_museum_of_denmark

 

 

    

 

Credits for header's photographs