New Cheilostomata (Bryozoa) from NE Atlantic seamounts, islands, and the continental slope: evidence for deep-sea endemism

Björn Berning, Jean-Georges Harmelin, Beate Bader


Ten new species belonging to three new genera (Atlantisina gen. nov., Bathycyclopora gen. nov., Calvetopora gen. nov.) of umbonulomorph bryozoans from northeastern Atlantic seamounts, islands, and the continental slope are introduced. We furthermore erect the new family Atlantisinidae fam. nov. for these genera. Eight new species belong to the new genus Atlantisina: Atlantisina atlantis gen. et sp. nov. (type species), A. acantha gen. et sp. nov., A. gorringensis gen. et sp. nov., A. inarmata gen. et sp. nov., A. lionensis gen. et sp. nov., A. meteor gen. et sp. nov., A. seinensis gen. et sp. nov., and A. tricornis gen. et sp. nov. The genus Bathycyclopora gen. nov. is introduced for ?Phylactella vibraculata Calvet from the Azores, and also includes Bathycyclopora suroiti gen. et sp. nov. The type species of Calvetopora gen. nov. is Lepralia inflata Calvet from the Gulf of Cadiz; this genus also includes Calvetopora otapostasis gen. et sp. nov. and another species left in open nomenclature. Of the 13 species described herein, 11 occur on seamounts and islands, and nine species are endemic to a single seamount, island or station. The present results show that bryozoans provide striking examples of the function of seamounts as areas of endemism, most likely intrinsically linked to the low dispersal abilities of bryozoan larvae.

Full Text:




Ávila S.P., Ramalho R.S., Habermann J.M., Quartau R., Kroh A., Berning B., Johnson M.E., Kirby M.X., Zanon V., Titschack J., Goss A., Rebelo A.C., Melo C., Madeira P., Cordeiro R., Meireles R., Bagaço L., Hipólito A., Uchman A., da Silva C.M., Cachão M. & Madeira J. 2015. Palaeoecology, taphonomy, and preservation of a lower Pliocene shell bed (coquina) from a volcanic oceanic island (Santa Maria Island, Azores). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 430: 57–73.

Bartsch I. 2008. Notes on ophiuroids from the Great Meteor Seamount (Northeastern Atlantic). Spixiana 31: 233–239.

Berning B. 2008. Evidence for sublethal predation and regeneration among living and fossil ascophoran bryozoans. In: Hageman S.J., Key M.M. & Winston J.E. (eds) Bryozoan Studies 2007. Virginia Museum of Natural History Special Publication 15: 1–7.

Berning B. 2012. Taxonomic notes on some Cheilostomata (Bryozoa) from Madeira. Zootaxa 3236: 36–54.

Berning B. 2013. New and little-known Cheilostomata (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata) from the NE Atlantic. European Journal of Taxonomy 44: 1–25.

Berning B. & Kuklinski P. 2008. North-east Atlantic and Mediterranean species of the genus Buffonellaria (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata): implications for biodiversity and biogeography. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 152: 537–566.

Bishop J.D.D. 1989. Colony form and the exploitation of spatial refuges by encrusting Bryozoa. Biological Reviews 64: 197–218.

Busk G. 1884. Report on the Polyzoa. Part I. The Cheilostomata. Report of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873–76 10: 1–216.

Calvet L. 1906. Note préliminaire sur les bryozoaires recueillis par les expéditions du Travailleur (1881–1882) et du Talisman (1883). Bulletin du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle 12: 154–166.

Calvet L. 1907. Bryozoaires. In: Milne-Edwards A. & Perrier E. (eds) Expéditions scientifiques du “Travailleur” et du “Talisman” pendant les années 1880–1883, Vol. 8: 355–495. Masson et Cie, Paris.

Calvet L. 1931. Bryozoaires provenant des campagnes scientifiques du Prince Albert 1er de Monaco. Résultats des Campagnes Scientifiques du Prince Albert 1er de Monaco 83: 1–152.

Christiansen B., Martin B. & Hirch S. 2009. The benthopelagic fish fauna on the summit of Seine Seamount, NE Atlantic: composition, population structure and diets. Deep-Sea Research II 56: 2705–2712.

Geldmacher J., Hoernle K., Klügel A., van den Bogaard P., Wombacher F. & Berning B. 2006. Origin and geochemical evolution of the Madeira-Tore Rise (eastern North Atlantic). Journal of Geophysical Research 111: B09206.

George K.H. & Schminke H.K. 2002. Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda) of the Great Meteor Seamount, with first conclusions as to the origin of the plateau fauna. Marine Biology 144: 887–895.

Gillet P. & Dauvin J.-C. 2003. Polychaetes from the Irving, Meteor and Plato seamounts, North Atlantic Ocean: origin and geographical relationships. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 83: 49–53.

Gofas S. 2007. Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from northeast Atlantic seamounts. Journal of Natural History 41: 779–885.

Gordon D.P. 2014. Apprehending novel biodiversity – fifteen new genera of Zealandian Bryozoa. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 94 (8): 1597–1628.

Gordon D.P. & Taylor P.D. 2010. New seamount- and ridge-associated cyclostome Bryozoa from New Zealand. Zootaxa 2533: 43–68.

Harmelin J.-G. 1977. Bryozoaires du Banc de la Conception (nord des Canaries). Campagne Cineca I du “Jean Charcot”. Bulletin du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, 3e sér. 492: 1057–1076.

Harmelin J.G. 1986. Patterns in the distribution of bryozoans in the Mediterranean marine caves. Stygologia 2: 10–25.

Harmelin J.-G. 2000. Ecology of cave and cavity dwelling bryozoans. In: Herrera Cubilla A. & Jackson J.B.C. (eds) Proceedings of the 11th International Bryozoology Association Conference: 38–53. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City.

Harmelin J.-G. 2006. The Puellina flabellifera species complex: a remarkable example of worldwide species radiation in cribrimorph bryozoans. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 257: 73–91.

Harmelin J.-G. & Arístegui J. 1988. New Cribrilinidae (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) from the upper bathyal of the Atlanto-Mediterranean region. Journal of Natural History 22: 507–535.

Harmelin J.-G. & d’Hondt J.-L. 1992. Bryozoaires des parages de Gibraltar (campagne océanographique BALGIM, 1984). 1 – Chéilostomes. Bulletin du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, 4e sér. 14: 23–67.

Hayward P.J. 1978. Bryozoa from the west European continental slope. Journal of Zoology 184: 207–224.

Hayward P.J. & Ryland J.S. 1999. Cheilostomatous Bryozoa. Part 2. Hippothooidea – Celleporoidea. Synopses of the British Fauna 14: 1–416.

Heinz P., Ruepp D. & Hemleben C. 2004. Benthic foraminifera assemblages at Great Meteor Seamount. Marine Biology 144: 985–998.

Hondt J.-L. d’ 1973. Bryozoaires et brachiopodes de la campagne Noratlante. Bulletin du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, 3e sér. 179: 1209–1223.

Hondt J.-L. d’ 1974. Bryozoaires récoltés par la “Thalassa” dans le Golfe de Gascogne (Campagnes de 1968 à 1972). Cahiers de Biologie Marine 15: 27–50.

Hondt J.-L. d’ 1975. Bryozoaires cténostomes et cheilostomes (Cribrimorphes et Escharellidae exceptés) provenant des dragages de la campagne océanographique Biaçores du “Jean Charcot”. Bulletin du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, 3e sér. 299: 553–600.

Hughes R.N. 1987. The functional ecology of clonal animals. Functional Ecology 1: 63–69.

Jullien J. & Calvet L. 1903. Bryozoaires provenant des campagnes de l’Hirondelle (1886–1888). Résultats des Campagnes Scientifiques du Prince de Monaco 23: 1–188.

López-Fé C.M. 2006. Some bathyal cheilostome Bryozoa (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) from the Canary Islands (Spain, Eastern Atlantic), with descriptions of three new species, a new genus, and a new family. Journal of Natural History 40: 1801–1812.

McClain C.R. 2007. Seamounts: identity crisis or split personality? Journal of Biogeography 34: 2001–2008.

McClain C.R., Lundsten L., Ream M., Barry J. & DeVogelaere A. 2009. Endemicity, biogeography, composition, and community structure on a Northeast Pacific seamount. PLoS ONE 4 (1): e4141.

McKinney F.K. & Jackson J.B.C. 1989. Bryozoan Evolution. Unwin Hyman, Boston.

Okamura B., Harmelin J.-G. & Jackson J.B.C. 2001. Refuges revisited. Enemies versus flow and feeding as determinants of sessile animal distribution and form. In: Jackson J.B.C., Lidgard S. & McKinney F.K. (eds) Evolutionary Patterns. Growth, Form, and Tempo in the Fossil Record: 61–93. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Ostrovsky A.N. 2013. Evolution of Sexual Reproduction in Marine Invertebrates. Example of Gymnolaemate Bryozoans. Springer, Dordrecht.

Packmor J., Müller F. & George K.H. 2015. Oceanic islands and seamounts as staging posts for Copepoda Harpacticoida (Crustacea) – shallow-water Paramesochridae Lang, 1944 from the North-East Atlantic Ocean, including the (re-)description of three species and one subspecies from the Madeiran Archipelago. Progress in Oceanography 131: 59–81.

Reed C.G. 1991. Bryozoa. In: Giese A.C., Pearse J.S. & Pearse V.B. (eds) Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates: 85–245. Boxwood Press, Pacific Grove.

Reverter-Gil O. & Souto J. 2015. Redescription of some species of Bryozoa described by J. Jullien and L. Calvet in the NE Atlantic. European Journal of Taxonomy 157: 1–17.

Reverter-Gil O., Berning B. & Souto J. 2015. Diversity and systematics of Schizomavella species (Bryozoa: Bitectiporidae) from the bathyal NE Atlantic. PLoS ONE 10 (10): e0139084.

Richer de Forges B., Koslow J.A. & Poore G.C.B. 2000. Diversity and endemism of the benthic seamount fauna in the southwest Pacific. Nature 405: 944–947.

Rowden A.A., O’Shea S. & Clark M.G. 2002. Benthic biodiversity of seamounts on the northwest Chatham Rise. Marine Biodiversity Biosecurity Report 2: 1–21.

Rowden A.A., Clark M.R. & O’Shea S. 2004. Benthic biodiversity of seamounts on the Northland Plateau. Marine Biodiversity Biosecurity Report 5: 1–21.

Samadi S., Bottan L., Macpherson E., Richer de Forges B. & Boisselier M.C. 2006. Seamount endemism questioned by the geographical distribution and population genetic structure of marine invertebrates. Marine Biology 149: 1463–1475.

Souto J., Reverter-Gil O. & Fernández-Pulpeiro E. 2011. Redescription of some bryozoan species originally described by J. Jullien from Iberian waters. Zootaxa 2827: 31–53.

Souto J., Berning B. & Ostrovsky A.N. 2016. Systematics and diversity of deep-water Cheilostomata (Bryozoa) from Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic). Zootaxa 4067 (4): 401–459.

Stocks K. 2004. Seamount invertebrates: composition and vulnerability to fishing. In: Morato T. & Pauly D. (eds) Seamounts: Biodiversity and Fisheries. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 12: 17–24.

Thoma J.N., Pante E., Brugler M.A. & France S.C. 2009. Deep-sea octocorals and antipatharians show no evidence of seamount-scale endemism in the NW Atlantic. Marine Ecology Progress Series 397: 25–35.

Xavier J.R. & van Soest R.W.M. 2007. Demosponge fauna of Ormonde and Gettysburg Seamounts (Gorringe Bank, north-east Atlantic): diversity and zoogeographical affinities. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 87: 1643–1653.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

License URL:








Credits for header's photographs