Designation of a new family group name, Tonzidae fam. nov., for the genus Tonza (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutoidea), based on immature stages of Tonza citrorrhoa

Shigeki Kobayashi, Haruka Matsuoka, Masaaki Kimura, Jae-Cheon Sohn, Yutaka Yoshiyasu, David C. Lees

Abstract


The systematic position of Tonza Walker, 1864 is re-evaluated, based on the characteristics of immature stages and DNA barcodes. Larvae and pupae of Tonza citrorrhoa Meyrick, 1905 are described and illustrated for the first time. Larvae of this species form a loose web among the leaves and branches of the host plant, Putranjiva matsumurae Koidz. (Putranjivaceae Endl.). The immature stages of Tonza exhibit four unique apomorphies including: in the larva, the prolegs on A5 and A6 absent, and the seta L2 on the A1–A8 very small; in the pupa, four minute knobs are positioned in the middle portion on abdominal segments V and VI; while its caudal processes possess a W-shaped spine with numerous minute spines. These characteristics clearly distinguish Tonza from other yponomeutoid families and hence, we propose a new family group name, Tonzidae Kobayashi & Sohn fam. nov., for the genus Tonza. Existing DNA barcode data suggest a relationship with Glyphipterigidae Stainton, 1854. The family level status of Tonzidae fam. nov. provides a hypothesis that needs to be tested with larger molecular data.

Keywords


Adenosma; Bedelliidae; DNA barcoding; Putranjiva matsumurae; leaf webber

Full Text:

PDF PDF/A


DOI: https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2018.443

References


Ahn N.H., Hirowatari T. & Kuroko H. 2004. Immature stages of Lyonetia euryella Kuroko (Lepidoptera, Lyonetiidae). Transactions of the Lepidopterological Society of Japan 55 (3): 196–202.

Brown J.M., Pellmyr O., Thompson J.N. & Harrison R.G. 1994. Phylogeny of Greya (Lepidoptera: Prodoxidae) based on nucleotide sequence variation in mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and II: congruence with morphological data. Molecular Biology and Evolution 11: 128–141. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a040087

Common I.F.B. 1966. Australian Moths. Jacaranda Press, Brisbane.

Common I.F.B. 1990. Moths of Australia. Melbourne University Press, Carlton.

Dugdale J.S., Kristensen N.P., Robinson G.S. & Scoble M.J. 1998. The Yponomeutidae. In: Kristensen N.P. (ed.) Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies. Vol. 1. Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbook of Zoology 4: 119–130. Walter de Gruyer, Berlin.

Folmer O., Black M., Hoeh W., Lutz R. & Vrijenhoek R. 1994. DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology 3: 294–299.

Hall J.C., Sytsma K.J. & Iltis H.H. 2002. Phylogeny of Capparaceae and Brassicaceae based on chloroplast sequence data. American Journal of Botany 89 (11): 1826–1842. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.89.11.1826

Heppner J.B. 1992. Plutellidae. In: Heppner J.B. & Inoue H. (eds) Checklist. Lepidoptera of Taiwan 1 (2): 74. Association for Tropical Lepidoptera, USA.

Kearse M., Moir R., Wilson A., Stones-Havas S., Cheung M., Sturrock S., Buxton S., Cooper A., Markowitz S., Duran C., Thierer T., Ashton B., Mentjies P. & Drummond A. 2012. Geneious Basic: an integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data. Bioinformatics 28 (12): 1647–1649. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts199

Kobayashi S. 2015. Biological notes on Lyonetia (Lyonetiola) castaneella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae), with a new hostplant from Japan. Lepidoptera Science 66 (3): 90–95.

Kobayashi S., Sohn J.-C., & Yoshiyasu Y. 2015. Reevaluation of the systematic position of the genus Tonza Walker (Yponomeutoidea: family incertae sedis), based on Tonza citrorrhoa Meyrick, new to Japan. Lepidoptera Science 66 (2): 68–76.

Kyrki J. 1984. The Yponomeutoidea: a reassessment of the superfamily and its suprageneric groups (Lepidoptera). Entomologica Scandinavica 15: 71–84. https://doi.org/10.1163/187631284X00064

Kyrki J. 1990. Tentative reclassification of holarctic Yponomeutoidea (Lepidoptera). Nota Lepidopterologica 13: 23–42.

Meyrick E. 1905. Descriptions of Indian Micro-Lepidoptera. The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 16: 614.

Meyrick E. 1913. Exotic Microlepidoptera, 1. Exotic Microlepidoptera, 1, Thornhanger, Marlborough: 146. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.9241

Nasu Y., Yasuda K., Arita Y., Ahn N.H. & Hirowatari T. 2011. Yponomeutoidea. In: Komai F., Yoshiyasu Y., Nasu Y. & Saito T. (eds) A guide to the Lepidoptera of Japan: 162–184. Tokai University Press, Kanagawa. [In Japanese.]

Philpott A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

Povel G.D.E. & Beckers M.M.L. 1982. The prothoracic ‘defensive’ gland of Yponomeuta-larvae (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae). Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen. Series C 85 (3): 393–398.

Puntambekar S.V. 1950. Mustard oils and mustard oil glucosides occurring in the seed kernels of Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences A 32: 114.

Seino A. 2016. Tonza citrorrhoa Meyrick (Yponomeutoidea incertae sedis) and Naccaba sumptualis Walker (Noctuidae) collected from Amami-oshima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture. Yugato 226: 112. [In Japanese.]

Sohn J.-C. 2014. A taxonomic review of Stachyotis (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea: Plutellidae) with description of a new species from China. Florida Entomologist 97 (4): 1588–1593. https://doi.org/10.1653/024.097.0431

Sohn J.-C. & Nishida K. 2011. A taxonomic review of Eucalantica Busk (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) with descriptions of six new species. Zookeys 118: 75–96. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.118.956

Sohn J.-C., Regier J.C., Mitter C., Davis D., Landry J.-F., Zwick A. & Cummings M. 2013. A molecular phylogeny of Yponomeutoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Ditrysia) and its implications for classification, biogeography and the evolution of host plant use. PLoS ONE 8 (1): e55066. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055066

Stehr F. (ed.) 1987. Immature Insects. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa.

Tamura K., Stecher G., Peterson D., Filipski A. & Kumar S. 2013. Mega 6: molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30 (12): 2725–2729. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mst197

Umetsu K. 2016. A record of Tonza citrorrhoa Meyrick (Yponomeutoidea: family incertae sedis) from Iriomote-jima Island, the Ryukyus. Yugato 224: 38. [In Japanese.]

Walker F. 1864. List of the specimens of lepidopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum, Part XXIX, Tineites: 1011–1012. Trustees of the British Museum, London. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.58221


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/